Official home page of the SAO of Hungary

Thematic Publication: Monetary Policy

The Possible Causes of and Means of Avoiding External Financial Vulnerability

Hungary versus Singapore


László György
PhD, Assistant University Lecturer, Budapest University of Technology, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences, Department of Finance

József Veress
DSc, University Professor, Budapest University of Technology, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences, Department of Finance

Published in: Public Finance Quarterly 2013/1 (p. 53-75.)


Summary: Difficulties in external debt-financing in the period since the financial crisis of 2008 have shed light on the financial vulnerability of the Hungarian economy. In this study our aim is to reveal the causes of external financial vulnerability, which can be incorporated into economic policy choices. We analyse the case of Singapore to demonstrate an example of those policies which can help avoid unnecessary financial vulnerability. External financial vulnerability is related to the quality of foreign accounts liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation, but in a wider context the direct and indirect public financing means which determine the global competitiveness of a national economy (educational policy, cluster management etc.) can be linked to it as well. Based on the analysis of Singapore’s related policies, the theoretical advantages of economic openness (such as export expansion, employment, management expertise, know-how and technology acquisition) can be achieved at a much lower lever of external financial vulnerability than what was experienced in Hungary. Singapore and Hungary are excellent for such a comparison as small, economically open countries which are among the most globalised ones based on globalisation indices.

Keywords: financial vulnerability, privatisation, government linked companies, liberalisation, deregulation, monetary policy

Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) kód: E5, E52, L33


/storage/files/files/Angol_portal/public_finance_quarterly/Archive/2013/a_gyorgy_veress_2013_1,pdf típusú fájlDownload full text here